People of Turkish descent usually live in central and western Eurasia. At present most Turks live in modern Turkey. Many languages are spoken in the Turkish nation. Moreover, within the Turks, different cultures are observed. There are currently 140 million Turks living in the world.
When exactly in ancient times? The Turks were scattered all over the world, no date of which has been found in history. However, the Turks are the most widespread in Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. The Turks gradually began to convert to Islam. At one time almost all Turks converted to Islam. However, some smaller tribes now practice other religions, including Christianity.
Gradually an empire developed among the Turks. In the tenth century, the Turks occupied the Byzantine and Abbasid empires. Moreover, a group called “Tatars” began to gain influence among the Turks. The fall of the Seljuk Empire began when the Mongol’s world conquest revolution began.
How did the Turkish nation rise?
Religious beliefs have played an important role in the upliftment of the Turkish nation. During the Christian period, the largest Christian empire was born in Turkey. Among them was the Byzantine Empire.
The upliftment of the Turkish nation was mainly in the hands of Usman Gazi’s father Ertuğrul Ghazi. Ertugral Ghazi was the leader of the Oghuz Turkish tribe. Ertugrul Ghazi came to Anatolia from Marv to help the Seljuks of Rome against the Byzantine.
At that time he led the creation of the Ottoman Empire through a series of events. However, Ertugrul Ghazi died in 1280 AD. As a result, he couldn’t form the Ottoman Empire.
After the fall of the Roman Seljuk Empire of Turkish descent, Turkey was divided into several independent states. The emirate was one of them. Which was led by first Osman. The Ottoman Empire is named after him. He extended the borders of the kingdom to the Byzantine Empire.
After the death of the first Osman. Osman’s son first Orhan conquered Bursa in 1324 AD. He then shifted the capital of the Ottoman Empire to Bursa. Bursa, the Balkans, Anatolia The Ottoman Empire continues to conquer one new kingdom after another. The Byzantines gradually became weaker and weaker. 1402 Some places like Kosovo, Ceylonica are lost to Osmani too. However, the Sultan recaptured these places in 1424 AD.
Muhammad II, the son of Sultan Murad II, came to power at the age of 18. He conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453. Which was prophesied by the Prophet Muhammad of Islam. Then, from the 15th to 16th century, the size of the Ottoman Empire began to increase. During the reign of Sultan Suleiman.
The Ottoman Empire was the most extensive. Sultan Selim defeated the Persian emperor Ismail and extended his empire to Persia. Moreover, he was able to take control of Egypt and the Red Sea.
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent won. He then occupied part of the Hungarian Empire. He laid siege to Vienna in 1529 and 1532. But twice he was defeated in battle. Note that if Vienna had been conquered, it would have been easier for Sultan Suleiman to conquer the whole of Europe.
Sultan Murad IV conquered Iraq and liberated it from Persia. But then the influence of girls in the state continues to grow. At one time the fourth Sultan Murad Khan was killed by his mother. Sultan IV Khan is considered to be the last prudent ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
How did the fall of the Turks?
The influence of women also increased in the Ottoman Empire. The size of the empire continued to decrease in different places. Besides, the threat of the Russian Empire had to be dealt with. Sultan Ahmed III declared war on the Russian Empire in 1710-1711. In this Sultan Ahmed III won.
After the Austro-Turkish War of 1716-1718. Altena was forced to surrender to the Empire of Austria following the treaty. In 1768, Ukrainian troops entered Baltistan under Osmani’s control. There, Ukrainian troops carried out massacres on Turks. The war ended with a treaty in 1774.
Sultan Selim Osmani III also wanted a major overhaul of the army. However, the people objected to his reforms. At one stage the Janasari’s revolted. In the end, Sultan Selim III was killed by Janasari’s. 1804-1825 Revolution takes place in Serbia. Moreover, the War of Independence began in 1822 in Greece.
In the 19th century, the constitution of the Ottoman Empire was changed. By changing the Islamic Sharia, it was turned into a secular state. As a result, a revolt broke out in Jaziratul Arabia. At its core, it was led by Abdul Wahab Najdi. Who reformed Islam.
The final fall of the Turks.
In 1908, the young Turks started a movement against the Ottoman Empire. At one stage many reforms took place in the Ottoman Empire. The constitution of the state Osmani of 1876 was also withdrawn from the constitution. During this time many reforms were made in the Ottoman state but to no avail. Bosnia was annexed by Hungary in 1906. About four million Muslims fled Bosnia to Turkey for fear of genocide.
In 1914, according to the argument, Osmani also took part in the First World War in the Empire. The first was gaining many victories. However, the fall of the Ottoman Empire was confirmed by the revolt of the Arabs in the Middle East, the invasion of the Russians and the failure of the Caucasus campaign. On November 1, 1922, Ottoman Sultan Muhammad VI fled the country.
As a result, Istanbul and Izmir are out of the hands of Turkey. Then the Turks became independent under the leadership of Mostafa Kamal pasha Ataturk. The Ottoman Empire finally collapsed in 1924.